来源：Endocrine journal , 2019
作者:Sandra Skuja, Tatjana Zake
关键词:Hashimoto’s thyroiditis;Graves’ disease;...
T helper (Th) 17 cells and interleukin (IL)-17 play a significant role in the pathogenesis of autoimmune thyroid disease (AITD). However, it has recently become clear that Th17 cells are more heterogeneous and exhibit two different phenotypes, whereas IL-23 and IL-1β are crucial for the generation of pathogenic Th17 lymphocytes. We aimed to investigate the association between IL-17 and Th17-promoting cytokines in AITD by studying the immunoexpression patterns of IL-17, IL-23, and IL-1β in thyroid tissue. Following thyroidectomy, 29 patients with AITD (21 cases of Hashimoto’s thyroiditis (HT) and 8 cases of Graves’ disease (GD)) and 18 patients with colloid goiter, as controls, were enrolled in this study, and immunohistochemistry was performed. The expression level of IL-17 in thyrocytes was significantly higher in HT and GD patients than in colloid goiter patients. Immunopositivity for both IL-23 and IL-1β was significantly increased in HT patients compared to GD and colloid goiter patients. However, no difference was found between IL-23 or IL-1β expression in patients with GD and colloid goiter. A positive correlation between IL-17 and IL-23 as well as IL-17 and IL-1β expression was observed in HT patients (r = 0.574, p = 0.007 and r = 0.461, p = 0.036, respectively). In the GD group, IL-17 was positively correlated with IL-1β (r = 0.817, p = 0.013) but not with IL-23 expression. We found increased IL-23 and IL-1β expression in the HT group but not in the GD group. Furthermore, both interleukins were correlated with IL-17 immunopositivity in thyroid tissue, suggesting that pathogenic Th17-promoting cytokines may play a role in HT pathogenesis.
来源：Clinical and Translational Medicine , 2019
作者:Tovah Williamson, Nikhila Sultanpuram, Hossein Sendi
Metastasis is still poorly understood and thus further research must be conducted to provide insight into the driving factors. Novel research has revealed the significance of the microenvironment in the delegation of metastasis, expanding the field of cancer metastasis to cells and cell environments surrounding the migrated tumor cells. Research on hepatic metastasis is an ever-growing domain of this field, as several primary tumors can metastasize to the liver. The two features within the liver that promote metastasis—cellular and acellular—are found in the current interpretation of liver microenvironment. Novel findings of both are included in this review. Different hypotheses detailing the methods by which metastasis can occur must be included to understand the significance of the microenvironment, as well as a brief overview of the methods that can be used during research. This review aims to highlight the importance of liver microenvironment on the development or potential regression of hepatic metastasis through discussing both acellular and cellular components of liver microenvironment and their interaction with metastasis.
来源：Malaria Journal , 2019
作者:Patrick Zorowka;Simon Reider;Peter Lackner;等
关键词:Severe malaria;Otoacoustic emissions;...
BackgroundIn a previous study, severe and cerebral malaria have been connected with acute cochlear malfunction in children, demonstrated by a decrease of transitory evoked otoacoustic emissions (TEOAEs) reproducibility. This study aims to determine whether cochlear malfunction persists for 4 years after recovery from severe malaria in a subset of the previous study’s collective. Follow-up TEOAEs were performed on site (CERMEL, Hôpital Albert Schweitzer, Lambaréné, Gabon) or at the participants’ homes; 33 out of 90 participants included in the initial investigation by Schmutzhard et al. could be retrieved and were re-examined, 31/33 could be included. Of the 57 missing participants, 51 could not be contacted, 1 had moved away, 4 refused to cooperate, and 1 had died.MethodsAs in the initial investigation, participants of this prospective follow-up study were subjected to TEOAE examination on both ears separately. A wave correlation rate of > 60% on both ears was considered a “pass”; if one ear failed to pass, the examination was considered a “fail”. The results were compared to the primary control group. Additionally, a questionnaire has been applied focusing on subsequent malaria infections between the primary inclusion and follow-up and subjective impairment of hearing and/or understanding.ResultsThe cohort’s mean age was 9 years, 14 children were female, 18 male. 31 had been originally admitted with severe, one with cerebral malaria. 83.8% of participants (n = 26) presented with a TEOAE correlation rate of > 60% on both ears (the cut-off for good cochlear function); in the control group, 92.2% (n = 83) had passed TEOAE examination on both ears. Recurrent severe malaria was associated with a worse TEOAE correlation rate. Age at infection and gender had no influence on the outcome.ConclusionsCochlear malfunction seems to be persistent after 4 years in more than 16% of children hospitalized for malaria. In a healthy control group, this proportion was 7.8%. Yet, the severity of the initial TEOAE-decrease did not predict a worse outcome.
来源：Nordic Journal of Comparative and International Education , 2019
作者:Ingunn Marie Eriksen
关键词:school bullying;whole school approach;...
来源：Malaria Journal , 2019
作者:Nicholas J. Savill;Philip L. G. Birget;Kimberley F. Prior;等
关键词:Red blood cell preference;Cycle duration;...
BackgroundThe ability of malaria (Plasmodium) parasites to adjust investment into sexual transmission stages versus asexually replicating stages is well known, but plasticity in other traits underpinning the replication rate of asexual stages in the blood has received less attention. Such traits include burst size (the number of merozoites produced per schizont), the duration of the asexual cycle, and invasion preference for different ages of red blood cell (RBC).MethodsHere, plasticity [environment (E) effects] and genetic variation [genotype (G) effects] in traits relating to asexual replication rate are examined for 4 genotypes of the rodent malaria parasite Plasmodium chabaudi. An experiment tested whether asexual dynamics differ between parasites infecting control versus anaemic hosts, and whether variation in replication rate can be explained by differences in burst size, asexual cycle, and invasion rates.ResultsThe within-host environment affected each trait to different extents but generally had similar impacts across genotypes. The dynamics of asexual densities exhibited a genotype by environment effect (G×E), in which one of the genotypes increased replication rate more than the others in anaemic hosts. Burst size and cycle duration varied between the genotypes (G), while burst size increased and cycle duration became longer in anaemic hosts (E). Variation in invasion rates of differently aged RBCs was not explained by environmental or genetic effects. Plasticity in burst size and genotype are the only traits making significant contributions to the increase in asexual densities observed in anaemic hosts, together explaining 46.4% of the variation in replication rate.ConclusionsThat host anaemia induces several species of malaria parasites to alter conversion rate is well documented. Here, previously unknown plasticity in other traits underpinning asexual replication is revealed. These findings contribute to mounting evidence that malaria parasites deploy a suite of sophisticated strategies to maximize fitness by coping with, or exploiting the opportunities provided by, the variable within-host conditions experienced during infections. That genetic variation and genotype by environment interactions also shape these traits highlights their evolutionary potential. Asexual replication rate is a major determinant of virulence and so, understanding the evolution of virulence requires knowledge of the ecological (within-host environment) and genetic drivers of variation among parasites.
来源：The Journal of Thoracic and Cardiovascular Surgery , 2019
关键词:abdominal aortic aneurysm;acute type B aortic dissection;...
ObjectiveThis study aimed to describe the reliable prognostic factors of mortality and subsequent aortic events during the follow-up of uncomplicated type B acute aortic dissection.MethodsFrom January 2004 to December 2014, 255 patients with uncomplicated type B acute aortic dissection were admitted to our hospital. Cox proportional hazards analysis was performed to identify risk factors for all-cause mortality, aorta-related mortality, and aortic events.ResultsIn-hospital mortality was observed in 7 patients (2.7%). The rates of 5-year freedom from all-cause mortality, aorta-related mortality, and aortic events were 79.4% ± 2.9%, 93.3% ± 2.0%, and 71.7% ± 3.4%, respectively. The rate of 5-year freedom from aortic events was significantly lower among those with a patent false lumen (P = .006). Age and descending aorta diameter were independent risk factors of all-cause and aorta-related mortality (hazard ratio [HR], 1.08 and 1.13; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.04-1.10 and 1.03-1.24; P = .0001 and .007, respectively). Independent risk factors for aortic events were descending aorta diameter, false lumen thickness, and dilatation of abdominal aorta (HR, 1.06; 95% CI, 1.02-1.12; P = .006; HR, 1.07; 95% CI, 1.04-1.11; P = .00002; HR, 2.01; CI, 1.20-3.38; P = .008).ConclusionsIn uncomplicated type B acute aortic dissection, the age and dilatation of the thoracic aorta were associated with a higher risk of death, whereas false lumen thickness and concurrent abdominal aortic dilatation augment the risk for aortic events.