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作者:Remy Allard, Jocelyn Faubert, Denis G. Pelli

丛书:Frontiers Research Topics

关键词:Noise;Equivalent input noise;...

使用许可:CC BY

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Noise has been widely used to investigate the processing properties of various visual functions (e.g. detection, discrimination, attention, perceptual learning, averaging, crowding, face recognition), in various populations (e.g. older adults, amblyopes, migrainers, dyslexic children), using noise along various dimensions (e.g. pixel noise, orientation jitter, contrast jitter). The reason to use external noise is generally not to characterize visual processing in external noise per se, but rather to reveal how vision works in ordinary conditions when performance is limited by our intrinsic noise rather than externally added noise. For instance, reverse correlation aims at identifying the relevant information to perform a given task in noiseless conditions and measuring contrast thresholds in various noise levels can be used to understand the impact of intrinsic noise that limits sensitivity to noiseless stimuli. Why use noise Since Fechner named it, psychophysics has always emphasized the systematic investigation of conditions that break vision. External noise raises threshold hugely and selectively. In hearing, Fletcher used noise in his famous critical-band experiments to reveal frequency-selective channels in hearing. Critical bands have been found in vision too. More generally, the big reliable effects of noise give important clues to how the system works. And simple models have been proposed to account for the effects of visual noise. As noise has been more widely used, questions have been raised about the simplifying assumptions that link the processing properties in noiseless conditions to measurements in external noise. For instance, it is usually assumed that the processing strategy (or mechanism) used to perform a task and its processing properties (e.g. filter tuning) are unaffected by the addition of external noise. Some have suggested that the processing properties could change with the addition of external noise (e.g. change in filter tuning or more lateral masking in noise), which would need to be considered before drawing conclusions about the processing properties in noiseless condition. Others have suggested that different processing properties (or mechanisms) could be solicited in low and high noise conditions, complicating the characterization of processing properties in noiseless condition based on processing properties identified in noise conditions. The current Research Topic probes further into what the effects of visual noise tell us about vision in ordinary conditions. Our Editorial gives an overview of the articles in this special issue.

作者:

丛书:

关键词:greenhouse gas emissions;life cycle assessment;...

使用许可:CC BY-NC-ND

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Greenhouse-gas emissions have become one of the most impacting environmental issues in today��s society. A rapidly increasing trend in global CO2emissions particularly since the early nineties (23.64% since 1990) has led to the generation of about 50,000 million tons of CO2�Cequivalent (eqv) worldwide in 2010. According to mainstream climate experts, the increasing concentration of greenhouse-gases is having a warming effect on the world climate. To slow down global warming, there is a global focus on reducing greenhouse-gas emissions. Life cycle assessment in green building implementation is the focus of this Special Issue.

作者:Pierre Beckouche��Pierre Besnard��Hugues Pecout

丛书:

关键词:human;geography��political;...

使用许可:CC BY-NC

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This atlas provides a macro-regional overview of the areas that surround the European Union, from the Sahara to the Middle East, Western Balkans to European Russia, Turkey to the Arctic. Detailing key socio-economic data as well as developmental trends, the maps provide a comprehensive territorial analysis at a local scale and explore the potential for regional integration and cooperation.These pioneering maps examine challenges that threaten this wide, yet inter-connected, region, including environmental concerns in the North, political unrest in the East, social factors in the Western Balkans, and the upheaval in the Mediterranean since the Arab spring. Coverage investigates such key countries and areas as Libya, Israel, Palestine, Syria, and the Ukraine as well as explores such essential issues as Europe��s energy procurement. In addition, it also presents a comparison with other world regions such as East Asia and North America.In the end, readers discover that territorial integration faces many shortcomings, but that deep regional cooperation would be a key driver for the EU��s sustainable future. This atlas features the main results of the ��Integrated Territorial Analysis of the Neighbourhoods�� research project undertaken by ESPON (The European Observation Network for Territorial Development and Cohesion). It provides scholars; local authorities and NGOs involved in cross-border cooperation; companies interested in energy, agriculture, water, transportation and communication; and interested readers with key insights into this important region.

作者:Reti Irene H., Landesman Edward

丛书:Other Recent Work

关键词:University of California;Santa Cruz history of;...

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Edward Landesman was born in Brooklyn, New York, the son of Jewish immigrants from Eastern Europe. He and his parents and his twin brother moved to Los Angeles when Ed was two years old, the city which was to be his home through his undergraduate and then graduate education at the University of California, Los Angeles. Landesman was a first-generation college student, as his parents never had the opportunity to pursue higher education. He graduated from UCLA with a BA in mathematics in 1960, earned his MA in 1961, and his PhD in 1965, all from UCLA. While at UCLA, Landesman discovered that he loved teaching, a passion to which he was to dedicate himself for the rest of his career. He was honored with several major teaching awards, including the UCSC Santa Cruz Alumni Distinguished Teaching Award in 1984, and the Mathematical Association of America Deborah and Franklin Tepper National Award for Distinguished University or College Teaching in 1996. However, his record is equally distinguished in pure mathematics research, and in research about mathematics education, both at the college and K-12 levels. And Landesman also made major contributions to administration and institution-building at UC Santa Cruz, where he taught from 1966 until 1994. He served on numerous Academic Senate committees, became UCSC��s first associate academic vice chancellor for undergraduate education, and was provost and senior preceptor for academic affairs at Crown College. He has also been a pioneer and leader in mathematics education on a statewide and national level.

作者:Thomas Piecha, Peter Schroeder-Heister

丛书:Trends in Logic

关键词:logic;mathematics;...

使用许可:CC BY-NC

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This volume is the first ever collection devoted to the field of proof-theoretic semantics. Contributions address topics including the systematics of introduction and elimination rules and proofs of normalization, the categorial characterization of deductions, the relation between Heyting's and Gentzen's approaches to meaning, knowability paradoxes, proof-theoretic foundations of set theory, Dummett's justification of logical laws, Kreisel's theory of constructions, paradoxical reasoning, and the defence of model theory. The field of proof-theoretic semantics has existed for almost 50 years, but the term itself was proposed by Schroeder-Heister in the 1980s. Proof-theoretic semantics explains the meaning of linguistic expressions in general and of logical constants in particular in terms of the notion of proof. This volume emerges from presentations at the Second International Conference on Proof-Theoretic Semantics in T��bingen in 2013, where contributing authors were asked to provide a self-contained description and analysis of a significant research question in this area. The contributions are representative of the field and should be of interest to logicians, philosophers, and mathematicians alike.

作者:Ratuva Steven, Lawson Stephanie

丛书:

关键词:Fiji;national election;...

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The September 2014 elections in Fiji was one of the most anticipated in the history of the country, coming after eight years of military rule and under a radically new constitution that introduced a system of proportional representative (PR) and without any reserved communal seats. The election was won overwhelmingly by FijiFirst, a party formed by 2006 coup leader Frank Bainimarama. He subsequently embarked on a process of shifting the political configuration of Fijian politics from inter-ethnic to trans-ethnic mobilisation. The shift has not been easy in terms of changing people��s perceptions and may face some challenges in the longer term, despite Bainimarama��s clear victory in the polls. Ethnic consciousness has the capacityto become rearticulated in different forms and to seek new opportunities for expression. This book explores these and other issues surrounding the 2014 Fiji elections in a collection of articles written from varied political, intellectual and ideological positions.